OIA Model

Concept note on Awareness and sensitization of normal school children, teachers and principals and the success of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

While the “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” envisages schooling for all categories of children through a network of regular schools and support centers wherever possible, the success of this movement depends on the preparedness of the regular school management to accommodate children with disabilities. The inclusive education movement in schools is in a very nascent stage and wherever it has been tried out; there have been mild and moderate gains. To ensure that it evolves into a full-blown movement, sensitization of regular school children, teachers, principals and their management to the need for inclusion is very necessary. Even in schools where inclusive education is happening, the acceptance by the regular school children is not total. This is because the children do not know the potentials and possibilities of children with disabilities, they do not see them as part of the diversity pool and there are myths, misconceptions and prejudices in their mind vis-a-vis children with disabilities. Unless they are taught to accept the children with disabilities at a mental level, the acceptance on a day-to-day basis will not come. It is here that the Orientation Interaction and Association Model (OIA Model) developed by Brotherhood can help achieve the goals of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan by the following objectives:-

  • To facilitate inclusion in the classroom.

  • To break the myths, stereotypes and prejudices regarding persons with disabilities, so that they are accepted as part of society. To orient the children in regular schools towards the rights of persons with disabilities especially to make them study in regular schools.

  • The Orientation, Interaction,Association Model (OIA Model) comprises the following steps:

Orientation – Of young minds of school children about the state, status, needs, physical, mental and psychological problems of the disabled.

Interaction – Direct interaction between children with disability and other ordinary school children to understand each other better.

Association – The above two steps will result in a long-term understanding and association among children with disability and other school children.


1) Change of perception about disabled and disability,
2) Definitions of various disabilities,
3) Difference between disability, handicap & impairment,
4) Integration and inclusion,
5) Barrier-free environment,
6) Rehabilitation of persons with disability,
7) About Acts, policies, schemes, concessions etc.,
8) Attitudinal problems etc.

Unit I

Disability and Diversity
  • What is Normal?
  • How people who are different from us are also like us?
  • What about people who do not fit into this mould?
  • How do we view them as people excluded from society or
    people included in society?
  • Classroom activities.

Unit II

Myths, Stereotypes
and Prejudices
  • What are myths, stereotypes and prejudices in the
    context of persons with disabilities?
  • What are the sources of myths, stereotypes and
    prejudices in the context of persons with disabilities?
  • What is impairment, disabled and handicapped?
  • How do we form images?
  • What is the relationship between perception of the
    problem, attitudes and nature of services rendered?
  • Classroom activities.

Unit III

Rights and
  • What are human rights and responsibilities of an
  • How are persons with disabilities denied their rights?
  • Classroom activities.

Unit IV

Persons with Disabilities
  • How are persons with various disabilities
    different/similar to us?
  • What are the rights, stereotypes, prejudices relating
    to them?
  • Knowledge of Braille and sign language.
  • Success stories, interaction with achiever with
Unit V Interaction with
Children with Disabilities
  • Various Interactive activities between both
  • Exchange visits

Unit VI

Inclusion –
Studying together to
facilitate inclusion. Two weeks experiment in the class room
in normal school. Set up a temporary resource centre.

Unit VII

Feedback form given to students